Collection of archeology
The museum collection of archeology is being formed since the 1920s. At
that time the museum received objects of antique art craft from the Leningrad
branch of the State Museum Fund. Among them were amulets made of the Egyptian
faience, glass and metal adornments, a small collection of carved stones
and lithics. The small part of objects has arrived from the Western-Siberian
branch of Russian Geographical Society collection.
In 1988 the collection of antique craft was supplemented with a collection of antique ceramics and glass, transferred to the museum from the State Hermitage.
In second half of the 1980s the archeological collection included in its structure the artistic works found in the Omsk Irtysh territory. In the beginning of the 1990s from archeological museums of the Omsk State University and the Omsk State Pedagogical University were transferred objects found during archeological excavations in the taiga, forest-steppe and steppe territories of the Omsk Region made under the direction of V.A. Mogilnikov, V.I. Matyushchenko, B.A. Konikov, L.I. Pogodin. Was formed a significant section of the collection reflecting features of the depicting activity of the population the Omsk Irtysh area of the epochs of an antiquity and the Middle Ages, due to what chronological frameworks of the collection have broadened: Third millennium BC – 12th century (including antique craft of the 5th century BC – 5th century AD). Now the collection numbers about 1667 units.
Geographical frameworks of the collection cover the centers of a classical antiquity - Attica, Northern Black Sea Coast, Asia Minor, Bactria, East Turkestan, probably Northern China, and territory of distribution of archeological cultures of the Omsk Irtysh zone from taiga areas up to steppes. Alongside with objects of the local making a significant place is occupied by import products.
The collection includes items made of ceramics, glass, stone, bronze, bone, iron, gold, silver, and also art textiles.
To the epoch of the early Iron Age represented in the Irtysh zone by the Sargatka culture, belong objects from the burial ground Sidorovka. In the museum funds are concentrated all most significant art goods from this burial mound necropolis, describing an applied art widespread among the nomadic peoples at the end of the first millennium BC - beginning of the first millennium AD: golden waist belt plates with the image of two fighting feline predators and a dragon, phalars depicting incurved winged dragon.
Extremely interesting are objects from another complex of Sargatka culture, Isakovka I which is dated to the 2nd – 4th centuries AD. Among them – golden waist rectangular plates decorated with compositions of fighting fantastic animals scenes. Special decorative effect is given to them by color inserts of which till our time turquoise ones are well preserved. Scenes of animals tearing each other to pieces are engraved on the belt buckle, on the dagger pendants, on shoe clasps.
The silver bowls, probably, served as cult vessels for sacrificial libations. Articles are interesting not only by their decorative resolution, but, first of all by the inscriptions placed on their external walls which are the samples of ancient Parphia and Khoresm writing.
Gold and silver articles of personal decoration, weapons and horse harnesses belong to the “animal style” which characterizes art of nomadic peoples of Eurasia of an epoch of the early Iron Age.
The collection of an epoch of the Middle Ages is represented by bronze goods, executed in the technique of moulding. They depict images characteristic for thinking of the taiga population: bear, elk, birds (eagle, owl, eagle-owl), man.
A ladle from the Kip complex is dated to the epoch of the advanced Middle Ages (10th – 12th centuries).
Its purpose (waist ladle), its
form, its general contour, especially obvious in the handle, are typical
for Turkic peoples. An arrangement of images on horizontal zones is a
development of the ancient Eastern art system. Plots of imperial hunting,
an eagle tearing a hare to pieces were wide spread in Achemenid Iran,
and a motive of heavenly hunting - among the nomads. Genre, on the first
sight, scene depicting a drover with a donkey, can go back to the ritual
action known among the Hittites.